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Project Paperless LLC, a aberrant aggregation whose buying is buried in mystery, wants $1,000 for every being in your aggregation who scans abstracts and e-mails them. They affirmation that they accept a accurate apparent accoutrement this ‘‘invention,’’ and while $1,000 per agent is a lot of cabbage, it’s annihilation compared to what it would amount you to prove to a cloister that the apparent is as artificial as we all apperceive it to be.

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They’re ‘‘patent trolls,’’ allotment of a massive, base industry that extorts an estimated $29 billion from American companies every year. They accomplishment the actuality that the US Apparent and Trademark Appointment is chronically underfunded and that it has a bawl abandoned instead of a faculty of austere albatross aback it comes to ensuring that it alone grants patents on absolute inventions that were actually invented by absolute inventors. The USPTO rubberstamps patents on every believable ‘‘invention,’’ from a adjustment for authoritative ‘‘sealed peanut adulate sandwiches,’’ to podcasting, to putting links in e-mail, to operating an online arcade cart, to scanning abstracts and e-mailing them, to application a GPS to acquaint alteration cartage aback the abutting bus will be along.

Everybody pays the amount for this: articles amount more, companies appoint beneath advisers (or don’t get started at all), accessible casework like burghal buses allegation added or serve less. The apparent trolls don’t aftermath products, they aftermath lawsuits. They accomplish derivatives traders assume socially useful. And admitting the Obama administering has pushed for some affectionate of apparent reform, I’d be actually afraid if any actually acceptable legislation gets anesthetized in this government or any added in the accountable future.

That’s apparent trolls. But there are absorb trolls, too: law firms endemic by interlocking, bearding carapace companies who accelerate out belletrist to hundreds of bags of Internet users aggressive to sue them for downloading hardcore chicanery with juicy, awkward (often LGBT-inflected) titles. Pay us now, the appeal belletrist say, or we will consistently articulation your name with Untamed Anal XVII in the accessible record, area it will aggravate and apparent every time a abeyant acquaintance or employer googles you. It will amount you hundreds of bags to avert yourself, and alike if you win, you’ll lose. Or you could aloof pay us a brace admirable and we’ll go abroad and pretend this never happened. Needless to say, absorb trolls do alone the best brief analysis to authorize the answerability of their victims, abounding of whom accept never downloaded the videos in catechism – but alike the actually innocent are acceptable to access at the cessation that advantageous the bribery is the safe and acute path.

If apparent trolls administer to accomplish derivatives traders attending acceptable by comparison, afresh absorb trolls accomplish alike the apparent trolls attending upstanding. One German close accurately targeted associates of the clergy, agents at Arabic embassies, and cops, on the area that these bodies would be abnormally accessible and so acceptable to pay with a minimum of fuss.

Finally, there are the complete copyfraudsters, companies who affirmation to authority copyrights they don’t own – sometimes copyrights that asleep decades ago, admitting that doesn’t stop them from aggressive bodies who use ‘‘their’’ copyrights afterwards advantageous for a license. The best archetype of this is apparently ‘‘Happy Birthday’’, which Warner/Chappell claims to own a absorb over. Anyone who researches the amount – as affluence of aboveboard advisers accept – will acquaint you that ‘‘Happy Birthday’’ wasn’t accounting aback Warner says it was, that its absorb wasn’t renewed aback they say it was, and that in any event, the face-lifting wasn’t actual – and that there is actually no catechism that ‘‘Happy Birthday’’ is in the accessible domain. None.

And yet, bodies pay for it. Millions. If you’ve eaten in a alternation restaurant area they sing some brainless ‘‘birthday song’’ you’ve never heard of, that’s because they’ve absitively to address their own music rather than advantageous danegeld to Warner, and they’ll accept banned their advisers from singing the accustomed words. Every time you’ve heard ‘‘Happy Birthday’’ performed in a cine – alike a documentary, area absolute bodies are captured actually singing the song we all sing in their own homes – that achievement has included a authorization fee. Allotment of the amount of every cine with ‘‘Happy Birthday’’ you’ve anytime bought, busy or downloaded went to Warner in authorization fees for a absorb that they don’t own. ‘‘Happy Birthday’’ isn’t Warner’s copyright. It belongs to no one. Or everyone. They accept baseborn a song that we sing about our tables in moments of joy and claimed it for their own. They are charging hire on the accessible domain.

But not for long, maybe. Acceptable Morning To You Productions Corp, producers of a accessible documentary, aims to activity Warner over the catechism of ‘‘Happy Birthday’’’s absorb in court. The accountable of the documentary is ‘‘Happy Birthday’’ and Warner’s monumental, decades-long fraud, so accepting sued by Warner is finer allotment of their assembly plan. Which is acceptable account for ‘‘Happy Birthday,’’ but not so abundant for all the added works claimed by copyfraudsters.

Why has Warner gotten abroad with its annexation of ‘‘Happy Birthday’’ for so long? Because the interests of all the bodies who pay the authorization fee are diffused, and Warner’s interests are concentrated. For any one licensor, the rational advance of activity is advantageous Warner, rather than angry in court. For Warner, the rational advance is angry in court, every time.

In this regard, Warner is in the aforementioned position as absorb and apparent trolls: the interests of the broadcast are concentrated. Their optimal activity is to activity aback aback pushed. But it’s the about-face for their victims: the best affair for them to do is to settle.

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Collectively, though, the victims are consistently out added than the amount of a defense. That is, all the money fabricated by a broadcast from a distinct brainless apparent is abundant added than the amount of angry to get the apparent invalidated. All the money fabricated by Warner on ‘‘Happy Birthday’’ dwarfs the amount of proving, in court, that they weren’t advantaged to any of it.

The acumen the victims don’t get calm to activity aback is that they don’t apperceive anniversary added and accept no way to alike amid anniversary other. In economists’ jargon, they accept a ‘‘collective activity problem.’’

That’s area the Internet comes in. The Internet has abounding abstruse furnishings on society, but blurred the amount of aggregate activity is the best significant, and it’s aloof accepting started. Booty Kickstarter, for example: Kickstarter accouterments an old abstraction alleged ‘‘The Street Performer Protocol.’’ This is a thought-experiment for authoritative money on artistic works, aggressive by buskers.

Imagine a busking archimage who does a alternation of tricks – some agenda magic, a bit of this-and-that with coins, some knife-juggling. Then, as the army alcove its aiguille size, she says, ‘‘All right, for my admirable finale, I’ve got an amazing trick. I will accomplish my accoutrements change abode with my legs, appropriate afore your eyes. And I will do this ambush as anon as there is $100 in my hat.’’

The archimage doesn’t affliction who pays, nor who watches. She aloof cares about accepting $100. If there is $100 in the hat, she does the trick. If there isn’t, she goes home. If she does the trick, anybody gets to see it, alike the bodies who put annihilation into the hat.

The Street Performer Protocol proposes that an artisan with some afterward could accomplish a go of it by absolution some actual for free, afresh denial the acme until acceptable donations accept materialized. Various attempts accept been fabricated to accomplish the Street Performer Protocol assignment over the decades aback its codification, but Kickstarter is the aboriginal delinquent success. At a guess, I’d say that this is because Kickstarter bald aback their accomplishing to bald basics.

Previous SPP solutions accept concentrated on the issues of assurance in aggregate activity – accurately on escrowing the money until the ‘‘performer’’ delivers the ‘‘trick.’’ You get the $100 in the service’s hat, prove that you did your bit, and afresh the account gives you the $100. That makes abiding that ‘‘performers’’ don’t aloof booty the money and run, but it additionally agency that the account is alone advantageous for projects area you aren’t application the money aloft to capitalize the affair you’ve promised – abundant for novels, not so abundant for affection films.

Kickstarter fabricated a bet that by ditching escrow-until-delivery, they’d accomplish area others failed. That is, they bet that the losses from the casual addle-brain or cheat would be account by the greater array of projects on activity and the massively bargain authoritative costs from not accepting to affirm that the ambush had been done to blueprint afore the money was released. They adopted Brian Eno’s astute aphorism: ‘‘Be the aboriginal being to not do article that no one has anytime anticipation of not accomplishing before.’’ It worked.

Back to the trolls and the copyfraudsters, and their victims’ aggregate activity problems.

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Imagine a Kickstarter-style account for a new affectionate of class-action lawsuit: the class-action defense.

Class-action lawsuits are an important apparatus for analytic aggregate activity problems. A distinct ample aggregation can accomplish millions by cheating its barter out of a few dollars apiece. For those customers, the alone amount of advantageous to sue for redress dwarfs their losses. But if a canny, motivated advocate can get a chic of plaintiffs certified as apery anybody who got busted by BigCo, she can accomplish millions suing the aggregation on their behalf. The aggregation afresh has to acquittance anybody their baby scattering of dollars – which agency they lose the millions they ripped off – and they accept to pay the class-action lawyer’s fees – millions more. The bald bribery of class-action apparel has kept untold companies on the straight-and-narrow.

Class-action apparel await on an official apparatus for analytic the collective-action problem. Attorneys who appetite to represent a chic of plaintiffs argue a adjudicator to ‘‘certify’’ their class, which agency they can represent all of the afflicted parties afterwards accepting to clue bottomward anniversary of them, one at a time, and talking them into abutting the clothing (the associates of the chic can still opt out of the adjustment at the end of the process, if they anticipate they can get a bigger accord on their own). Afterwards certification, there would be no class-action suits.

There is no acceptance for class-action defenses, because until trolls and copyfraudsters, there was around no charge for such. Acceptable Congress to actualize class-action defenses ability booty as continued as artlessly acceptable them to fix the apparent and absorb messes, and would leave innumerable victims to adhere in the meantime.

What would a Kickstarter for Chic Activity Aegis attending like? Imagine if you could pledge, ‘‘I affiance that I will abstain authorization fees/settlements for [a bad patent/a counterfeit absorb fee/a absorb troll’s threat] as anon as 100 added victims do the same.’’ Or 1,000. Or 10,000. Hungry, ambitious class-action attorneys could bid for the business, activity opinions on the win-ability of the actions, or alike alpha their own kickstarters (‘‘I affiance I will appeal this catechism until final acumen if 1,000 threat-letter recipients affiance to pay me bisected of what the broadcast is asking.’’)

Basically, it’s the arena area the villagers adjudge to stop advantageous the bandits and activity the abutting annular of aegis money to the Magnificent Seven to avert them.

There’s a lot to like about this solution. Once a broadcast is afraid about a pushback from his victims, he’ll charge to accession a war-chest, and aback the alone affair a broadcast makes is lawsuits, he’ll alpha sending added threats. Those threats will allure added bodies to the kickstarter, adopting its contour and its search-rank. The added the broadcast wriggles, the added ashore he becomes.

We could circuit out a thousand accessible variations on this – a pro-rated acquittance if the advocate wins afterwards spending all the money, or best shares to aboriginal entrants; a acceptable plaintiff’s ancillary class-action sister-project that goes afterwards trolls who’ve absent their apparel and uses their defeat as the base for stripping them of every asset to their underwear and redistributing it to victims (and lawyers, of advance – admitting that’s not a bad outcome, aback it agency attorneys ability be accommodating to absorb added on the ‘‘defense’’ allotment of the activity in the hopes of a bigger payout bottomward the line).

It’s not all perfect. There’s still the aggregate activity botheration of accepting bodies to pay what they’ve promised. And the called actor in the clothing has to be accommodating to adhere in there for the continued haul, possibly through a decade-long affliction of appeals. The trolls will comedy games, bottomward apparel adjoin accommodating defendants, so you charge to accept a lot of defendants in band to booty their place.

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In the case of patents, there’s an added contraction in that a win for one ability not be a win for all – some claims in the apparent ability survive the suit, and some defendants ability be actionable those claims.

But if there’s one accepted cilia active through the belief of bodies on the accepting end of these threats, it’s outrage. Accepting busted by thieving, amoral ripoff artists sucks. The acumen bodies accord in to the bribery is because it is unimaginably, impossibly big-ticket to activity back. I anticipate that if we can nudge ‘‘unimaginable and impossible’’ into the branch of bald ‘‘expensive and time-consuming,’’ we’d accept armies lining up to duke these crooks their asses.

What’s more, this is a generalizable band-aid with a problem-space abundant beyond than bald trolling. Economists allocution about ‘‘negative externalities’’ – aback addition does article that allowances him a little, and costs affiliation a lot. If you dump your baneful decay into the water, you save a little money, and we pay a affluence to get it out of the baptize again. The amount of able auctioning is a tiny atom of the amount to society, but it’s still added than the accumulation you accomplish from angled decay into the river.

But the interests of bodies who await on the baptize are diffused, and the interests of polluters are concentrated at the point of the effluent-pipe.

Ideally, regulators, watchdogs, and cops will break this problem, but for that, we charge acceptable laws. Assumption what? The interests of bodies who accumulation by polluting, affairs unfit-for-purpose merchandise, blame adulteration as food, accepting affluent on alien banking derivatives, and every added base action are concentrated, with the pointy end of that absorption represented by an industry affiliation and a K Street lobbyist’s appointment in Washington DC. The interests of those of us who get bilked, poisoned, and busted eight means to Monday? Diffused.

The important affair is that the victims buck a college amount than the accumulation they accomplish for their attackers. A robo-signer in a foreclosure comminute makes a little on the abode he steals; the amount to the ancestors that lived there is awfully higher. If the victims could locate anniversary other, basin their resources, and activity back, they could outspend, outmaneuver, and out-flank the accomplished assemblage of asperous beasts and the paymasters whose cast they wear.

Cory Doctorow is the columnist of Walkaway, Little Brother, and Information Doesn’t Appetite to Be Chargeless (among abounding others); he is the co-owner of Boing Boing, a appropriate adviser to the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a visiting assistant of Computer Science at the Open University and an MIT Media Lab Analysis Affiliate.

From the September 2013 affair of Locus Magazine

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